Using aquafaba?

Consider donating to help fund a phytochemical analysis for the community!


Feb 1 2016

Frequently Asked Questions

Click on any of the questions below to see answers to commonly asked questions in the forums:

General Questions

Generally, the term aquafaba refers to liquid from cooking legumes, like the liquid in a can of chickpeas, or liquid from cooking dried beans at home. The liquid is very close to the consistency of raw egg white and can be used in many recipes in very much the same way. You can bake with it, whip it and make meringues, make marshmallows or cheese with it, or use it as a raw fluff.
Like most discoveries, different aspects were contributed by different people. Generally, Joël established that you can whip chickpea liquid into a foam like egg whites, Goose discovered that aquafaba by itself can act as a general egg white replacer on its own, but most importantly, you, the community, discovered its true potential and teased out its secrets. Click on the history link to learn more.
Very soon after the initial creation of the facebook group, it was clear that the community needed a name to refer to aquafaba. Several names were proposed, but then the community settled on aquafaba. aqua is latin for water and faba is latin for bean, but it has other connotations: aqua + fabulous and aqua + fabaceae, for instance. See the thread in the facebook group for more information:

You use it very much like you would egg whites. To give you a brief glimpse of what you can do with aquafaba, here are just a few vegan recipes you can make:

  • Raw: Fluffs, whips, nice creams, and drink and pie toppings
  • Baked: Meringues, macarons, and pavlovas
  • Confectionery: nougat, marshmallows, fudge and icing
  • Savory: cakes, waffles, cookies, mayo, burgers, cheese, butter, breads, etc

Join the facebook group to see more recipes and learn about many other uses!
There are a few biochemists and phytochemists and kitchen experimenters from the groups tinkering with various aspects, but there is no real definitive consensus yet. The proteins and starches in the aquafaba tend to mimic the proteins in egg whites in many respects, but the science is still pending. If you want to contribute to learning more, please visit the science page to learn more and consider donating to fund an official analysis.
Click on the community link to learn more about the facebook groups set up to support aquafaba development and exploration. Post about it on your blogs and in comments on other blogs. The more people we get interested in it, the better.
Yes! While aquafaba tends to mimic some of the characterists of egg whites, it doesn't cover all of them, and it also covers some of the characterists of egg yolks, so there is a certain amount of overlap which makes it unique among egg replacers.
Please do! While there is some patent-pending technology around compositions and processes for creating standardized aquafabas for the industry, there is nothing preventing you from using recipes in your blog, book, cafe, bakery or retail establishment. Aquafaba is an open idea, developed by a community. You are definitely encouraged, though certainly not required, to link back to this site or the facebook groups to point people who are interested in learning more about it to the right place.
There are no official aquafaba products at the moment. You can use homemade or canned liquid as aquafaba with support from the community to determine if you have the right consistency. You can also purchase merchandise on our shop page. All proceeds go to funding aquafaba research which is then released back to the community. If you're interested in baked goods or products made from aquafaba, your best bet is to join the facebook group and ask if anyone nearby has anything to offer.
For now, the primary development and community is on facebook. We will have a dedicated forum on this site coming soon for those who don't wish to participate through facebook, or who wish to participate anonymously. You're also encouraged to join or create local meetup groups or local vegan groups to talk with other aquafaba enthusiasts. See the community page for facebook group information. There is also an aquafaba subreddit for those who are familiar with reddit.
Aquafaba by definition is made from beans that have been heat treated > 100C, and chickpeas have the least amount of lectins and phytates. If you're worried, use canned or home cooked chickpeas and avoid the other beans. There are over 20,000 members in the development group, and it's rare for people to report issues with gas, though some have.
Keep in mind that when making things like meringues, the final taste of the meringue is a far cry from the initial taste or smell of aquafaba. You may not be able to taste it in the final baked product. If you do, or you're making fluff or other non-baked items, you can use other legumes like soy water, cannellini beans, or butter beans, which have a much more neutral flavor.
Coming soon! If you have ideas about what you'd like to see in the app, please post to the group!
No! Feel free to heat and cool as you need.

Recipe Questions

Soon we will have a recipes on this site for browsing and forms for submitting your own, rating, and sharing recipes. Until then, please visit the facebook groups listed in the community page which have recipes in the files sections.
Generally 3 tbsp of aquafaba to one egg, but this really depends on whether your aquafaba is close to the right consistency. It should be a bit slimy, but not too thick, and not too runny. Ideally it should be the same consistency as egg whites. If you are using aquafaba from a can of beans and it seems very watery, you can reduce it on the stove by 25% or 33% to get a slightly thicker consistency. Thicker is generally better, but you don't want it to end up goopy or solid, so don't reduce too much.
You can certainly freeze aquafaba. Using an ice cube tray or other measured container is a good way to use easy pre-defined amounts. How long it lasts in the fridge really depends on how clean your fridge is, how much your aquafaba has been exposed to natural airborn molds and your containers. The rule of thumb is to treat it like egg whites. A few days shouldn't be a problem in anyone's fridge, but if you plan on keeping it more than a week or two, you're probably better off freezing it.
Aquafaba powder is the result of Goose's method of dehydrating aquafaba either in the oven or dehydrator and pulverizing it. There are a few tips and tricks to making aquafaba that is more potent and standardized, but any old aquafaba can be cooked at 200F/100C to dry it (or lower temperatures). Just make sure to do it on a non-stick surface! Be sure to measure your liquid volume before hand so you know how much water to add to your powder to reconstitute it. Powdered aquafaba can last indefinitely in a sealed container with a proper dessicant and is much easier to use than liquid.
There haven't been any legumes found so far that don't work. That said, the concentrations for various cans of beans varies greatly, so again, you want to make sure you have an ever so slightly thick liquid and it's not too runny. Even water from packaged tofu and peas works!
You want your aquafaba to be the consistency of egg whites. If it's really runny, you're better off reducing it by a quarter, letting it cool, and see how it feels. If it's too gloppy or firm like jello, it's been reduced too far and you'll need to heat it back up with some water. There is a very wide range of concentrations that works, depending on your recipe, so don't worry too much. Most packages or cans of chickpeas have liquid that's right about the perfect consistency. If you're having trouble in your recipe, though, you might think about reducing.
You can cook them in a slow cooker, on the stove, or in a pressure cooker using any standard recipe for cooking chickpeas. For explicit instructions, please join the facebook group listed in the community page and look in the files section for the homemade aquafaba recipes.
Absolutely. Aquafaba by definition is already heated to >100C/215F to extract the necessary constituents from the beans, so feel free to re-heat or cool as you desire.
Yes. There have been several recipes posted in the group using aquafaba as a binder in savory applications like veggie burgers. For now, please join the group and look at the recipes in the Files section for more information.

Meringue Questions

The most simple meringue recipe is to strain the liquid from a 13oz-15oz can of chickpeas, place it in a stand mixer with balloon whisk and whip it at high speed until it forms firm peaks. Once you're there, you want to slowly pour in 3/4 cup of granulated sugar slowly until it's well combined and glossy. At that point you should be able to turn the bowl upside down over your head. Scoop it onto parchment paper in 1.5inch/4cm blobs and put it in a preheated oven at 100C/200F for 1.5 hours, then let cool. There are, of course, so many variations of the basic recipe, but that should get you a proper starting point to experiment with what works for you.
There are many variables that can be changed when making meringues, and sugar is by far one of the most popular. The effective range seems to be anywhere from about 1 part sugar to 2 parts aquafaba liquid all the way to 2 parts sugar to 1 part aquafaba, and everywhere between. Start with 1:1 for a given type of aquafaba and see what works for you. If your meringues are too crunchy or grainy, cut back on the sugar and/or whip them for longer. If they're too light or spread too much, try increasing the sugar.
It seems to depend on what your aquafaba is like. Generally, it can't hurt to add 1/4 tsp of vinegar or cream of tartar when you're whipping aquafaba. Lemon juice has caused spreading for some people and sometimes imparts an unwanted flavor. In general, though, if your aquafaba doesn't have much particulate matter in it and your work surfaces are clean, the acid isn't really necessary to foam formation. If you're planning on adding oils/fats to your aquafaba after you whip it, it seems to really help having a buffer of acid in the foam ahead of time.
Yes, there are some very popular recipes in the Files section of the facebook group. See the community page for more info on joining the group if you haven't already.
The Swiss meringue doesn't really apply because it's designed to work around the coagulation of egg whites, and aquafaba doesn't suffer from that drawback. You can add the sugar in dry or boiling to emulate Italian or French meringues. Because aquafaba does not coagulate under heat, another option is available to vegan meringue makers, and that's the ability to use aquafaba while it is boiling. You can add dry or boiling syrup to cold or hot aquafaba. It is much more tolerant than egg whites in that regard.
Not as such. If you take a traditional angel food cake recipe and substitute the egg whites with aquafaba, you will end up with a mess. Time and time again newcomers try and the result is always the same. Rather than continue the tradition, you are encouraged to join the group and see what other things people have tried, so that you can try something new. Hopefully, together as a community, we can develop an angel food cake recipe that works!
Erythritol seems to be the only alternative sweetener that can be substituted 1:1 for sugar. The others result in a mess in the oven. If you discover another that works, please let the group know.
Icing sugar often has corn starch in it that gives some people grief. coconut sugar works for some people but not at all for others. Caster sugar is preferred by some people, but in general, it's plain old granulated sugar that works best. Syrups can be used if you're just making fluff or ice cream or something similar, but it's not recommended for a meringue.
Making meringues is not so much baking as it is dehydrating. The foam from aquafaba holds the sugars in place as the water is removed. The general sweet spot seems to be around 100C/200F or gas mark 1, but you can just as easily make them in a dehydrator if you have enough sugar that they don't spread for the longer amount of time it takes. What you don't want to do is go much about 220-240F or 115C, because that's the point where aquafaba seems to fall apart.
There are a lot of reasons... 200F/200C confusion, not enough whipping, too much particulate in your aquafaba, added emulsifiers, or pH (from flavorings). Ping the group if you're having trouble with this, as it's still not clear how to avoid it if all the variables seem right.
As long as you want, and it depends. If your aquafaba consistency is good and it's free of particular matter, it shouldn't take more than 2-3 minutes to whip into a firm peak. If it takes 10m or so, that's not bad, it just means you have either watery or dirty aquafaba. It's still ok to use, but it should give you an idea on where to look if you want to tweak it. Goose did a series of experiments whipping for up to an hour before making meringues with some interesting effects, but the meringues were still great, so there doesn't really seem to be an upper bound like there is with egg whites. Knock yourself out. Go wild. Whip away. Don't worry. (
You can't use a blender because the blades spin too fast to allow the foam to set up. It destroys the foam as fast as it creates it. If you're referring to a blender attachment that makes it work like a whisk, then sure. The ideal setup is a counter-top stand mixer with a balloon whisk. You want it to be fast enough to set up the foam, but not so fast you destroy it. You can use a hand mixer, but it might take a lot longer, and there are tales of people using a hand whisk, even making it by hand shaking it in a jar. It's entirely possible, but you sacrifice some texture (and glycogen) that way. Some people without stand mixers have been creative, hanging their hand mixer from a cupboard, for instance. Just use what you have, aiming for the stand mixer as best you can and don't give up.
Yes. Any temperature will work, but the highest settings let the meringues spread less and hardens them faster, so it's best to use your highest setting. You may also want to use a higher ratio of sugar to aquafaba and smaller meringues to let them hold their shape better.
Fluff is generally just unbaked, whipped aquafaba, often mixed with a liquid sweetener or flavorings. Sometimes people use the term fluff to refer to marshmallow fluff. There are recipes in the group for using aquafaba to make marshmallow fluff that rivals ricemallow and Kraft's marshmallow creme products, for instance.
Away from humidity, in short. You want to put them in a sealed container. If you suspect humidity may be an issue, put a dessicant pack in the container with them. If they do get sticky on the outside, you can always re-de-hydrate them or bake them for a short time at 200F to remove the accummulated water. Some people in luckier dry climates have had meringues sit out on plates for months, remaining edible and only barely tacky, so it really just depends on your environment.
Meringue powder is an elusive product referred to by goose in a few posts that constists of powdered aquafaba and sugars that can be reconstituted with water to make meringues. A quick version of this powder can be made by pulverizing all your unused meringues and using that powder as the basis for creating new meringues just by adding water (less than you started with). You can make twice/thrice baked meringues this way, for instance.
The biggest time where fat is important is when you start to whip liquid aquafaba into a foam. At this point fat can interfere with the production of the foam, so you really want to avoid it as much as possible at that point. Once the foam is established, however, you can add fats to it up to a point, depending on how stiff the foam is and how much sugar and acid there is. Some fats have other characteristics that come along with them (ie the oil in a flavoring has strong pH) which can destabilize the foam. But in general, fats are ok once the foam is established. It is possible, for instance, starting with clean aquafaba to make a nice cream with 3/4 cup aquafaba, 1/2 cup sugar, and 1/3 cup oil and the foam is not destroyed when you pour in the fat as long as it's stiff and glossy first. That way you get a creamy, fluffy ice cream in a matter of hours in the deep freeze. Others have found that just a tbsp of oil causes their foam to collapse entirely. It's not entirely clear what the difference is, yet.
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